1. The author expresses thanks to Western Cell Division for allowing him to review exhibition materials from "On the Street- Off the Street" while writing this essay.

2. Jean-Christophe Bailly, "Traces," introduction to Paris Graffiti, photographs by Joerg Huber (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1986), 8-9.

3. "Pony-tailed Girl," Polio Vasslene, street stencil, executed in Baltimore, 1979-1980.

4. "Hypo-Stigma Project," Western Cell Division, street stencil, executed in Baltimore, 1989-1993.

5. "Followed?," D. S. Bakker, street stencil, executed in Baltimore, 1983.

6. "Use Nonoxynol 9," Bob Kathman, street stencil, executed in Baltimore, 1991.

7. Western Cell Division, unpublished conversation with Anton Van Dalen, New York, April 20, 1996.

8. Illustration drawn and compiled by the author. Sources include Paul B. Janeczko, Loads of Codes and Secret Ciphers (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, London: Collier Macmillan Publishers, 1984), 9, Richard Wormser, Hoboes: Wandering in America, 1870-1940 (New York: Walker Publishing Co., Inc. 1994), 129, Elizabeth S. Helfman, Signs and Symbols Around the World (New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Co., Inc., 1967), 137-141, and Jane Sarnoff and Reynold Ruffins, The Code and Cipher Book (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975).

9. tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE, unpublished letter submitted as a contribution to the "On the Street-Off the Street" stencil show, February 10, 1996, 1.

10. Ibid., 2.

11. Bailly, 9.

12. Shepard Fairey, artist's statement, 1995

13. Guy Debord, Gil J. Wolman, "Methods of Detournment," in Situationist International Anthology, ed. and trans. by Ken Knabb, (Berkeley: Bureau of Public Secrets, 1981), 13.

14. Paula Gillen, unpublished letter submitted as contribution to the "On the Street-Off the Street" stencil show, April 15, 1996, 2.

15. Guy Debord, "Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography," in SI Anthology, Knabb, 7-8.

16. Ivan Chtcheglov, "Formulary for a New Urbanism," in SI Anthology, Knabb, 1.

The writing of this essay was supported, in part, by a grant from The National Endowment for the Arts.

Back to

Home CCC Stencils E-Mail