Luis Camnitzer:
Retrospective Exhibition

Introduction by Jane Farver
Essay—Moral Imperatives: Politics as Art in Luis Camnitzer by
Mari Carmen Ramirez
Essay—Politics and Ethnicity in the Work of Luis Camnitzer by Gerardo Mosquera
Statement—Manifesto, 1982 by Luis Camnitzer
Essay—Access to the Mainstream by Luis Camnitzer
Essay—Wonderbread and Spanglish Art by Luis Camnitzer
Essay—The Idea of the Moral Imperative in Contemporary Art by Luis Camnitzer
Chronology by Luis Camnitzer


Notes and Bibliography




"Moral Imperatives: Politics as Art In Luis Camnitzer" by Mari Carmen Ramirez

1 Luis Camnitzer, "Access to the mainstream," New Art Examiner, June 1987, 20.

21 am referring here to Frederic Jameson's characterization of Post-Modernism in the following terms: "as a designation of a whole set of aesthetic and cultural features and procedures, but also as the name for that specific mutation of the socioeconomic organization of our society commonly called late capitalism (this third stage of capitalism has also been called "consumer capitalism," "multinational capitalism." and even, "post-industrial society"). Frederic Jameson, "Hams Haacke and the Cultural Logic of Postmodernism," in Hans Haacke, Unfinished Business, Ed. by Brian Wallis, (New York and Cambridge: The New Museum of Contemporary Art and M.l.T.. Press, 1986), 38-9. See also, Jameson, "Post-Modernism and Consumer Society," in Hal Foster, ed. The Anti-Aesthetic. Essays on Post-Modern Culture, (Port Townsend, Washington: Bay Press, 1 983),111 -125.

3 Jameson, "Hans Haacke," 42.

4 See Jameson, "Hans Haacke," 42-43.

5 Hal Foster, "The Future of am Illusion or the Contemporary artist as Cargo Cultist," in Endgame: Reference and Simulation in Recent Painting and Sculpture, (Boston: Institute of Contemporary Art, 1986), 102-03.

6 Jameson, "Hans Haacke," 43.

7 The most complete framework for dealing with the Modernism/PostModernism issue in Latin America is provided by Néstor Garcia Canclini, Culturas Hibridas. Estrategias para entrar y salir de la modernioad (Mexico: Grijalba y consejo Nacional de Cultura y las Artes, 1970) See also, Nelly Richard, La estratifcacion de los margenes. Sobre arte, cultura y politicias, (Santiago de Chile: Francisco Zegers Editor, 1989).

8 Among the Latin American artists working in this vein we can cite the late Ana: Mendieta (Cuba), Alfredo Jaar (Chile), Juan Sanchez (Puerto Rico), Cesar Paternosto (Argentina), Catalina Parra (Chile), Leandro Katz (Argentina) and many others.

9 Camnitzer has recently observed, "After all these years I am still grateful that my intellectual heritage comes from the south and not from the north. I think that because of this, ethics—and politics in an ethical sense—may have played a bigger role in my upbringing." Camnitzer, "Screaming in a Room Full of Jello," paper presented by Mountain Lake Symposium, 1990, 1.

10 The following statement by Camnitzer is relevant to understand the full implications of the point I am trying to make: "I was raised and educated in Uruguay. It is something I am repeating more and more lately, to myself and others, because I am afraid of forgetting it. This month I am approaching the critical moment after which I will have spent more time in the U.S. than in my original cultural milieu. During this time I have tried to fend off contaminations as much as possible, but I have not been able to fully continue the same evolution as that of my generation-mates in Uruguay all these years. In that sense I once described myself as a citizen of memory, which doesn't have laws, passports or inhabitants—only distortions. So, I am now a little awkwardly placed in both worlds." Camnitzer, "Screaming in a Room Full of Jello," 1.

11 Camnitzer himself has coined this term to describe the conditions of artistic practice available to uprooted Latin American artists in the U.S. He has observed: "Used in relation to an, 'Spanglish' represents the merging of a deteriorating memory with the acquisition of a new reality distanced by foreigness. 'Spanglish' art is probably the most authentic alternative for the uprooted Latin artist." Camnizter, "Wonderbread and Spanglish An," typescript, 14-16. Forthcoming publication in Sur-Text, 1991.

12 The philosophical distinctions between Camnitzer's conceptualism and that of the leading Wittgenstein inspired school have been analyzed by Gerardo Mosquera, "El conceptualismo de Luis Camnitzer," Casa de las Americans, no. 139, 1983, 148152.

13 "Todo acto estetico es un acto etico,...En cuanto hago algo en el universo, aunque mas no sea un punto, estoy haciendo uso de poder Puede ser que eso le de la aureole politica a mi obra...politica en el sentido de querer cambiar la sociedad." Cited in, "A veces es una locura quedarse; a veces es una locura irse. Un reportaje de Carlo Stellweg a Luis Camnitzer," Arte en Colombia, October 1980, 50-55.
14 Camnitzer, Interview.

15 Luis Camnitzer, "Contemporary Colonial Art," paper presented at the Annual International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington, D.C., 1970.

16 The Spanish art historian Simon Marchan Fiz has distinguished between three modes of conceptualism: the tautological, exemplified in the work of Kosuth and the Art-Language group; the empirical-medial, represented by Sol Le Witt which recuperates both the image and the act of perception as means of knowledge and apprehension of the real; and a third category of ideological conceptual this last one developed mainly in peripheral societies like Spain and Latin America, which extends the self-referential strategies of conceptual art to the analysis of social processes. Camnitzer's work falls within third categories elaborated by Marchan Fiz, although it incorporates elements of the first and second categories. See Simon Marchan fiz, Del arte objetual Al arte de concepto (1960-1974), first edition 1972; reprint ed. 1986, (Madrid: Ediciones Akal, 1988), 249-271.

17 Latin American conceptual art cam be said to have coalesced in New York as a result of the activities of a young group of Latin American artists who coincided in this city in the mid to late 60s. Most of these artists shared am interest in establishing a rupture with previous forms of Latin American art, actively engaging in a search and experimentation with non-traditional media and artforms. This group included in addition to Camnitzer, Dittbom and Meireles, Felipe Ehrenberg, Liliana Porter Luis Felipe Noe, Rubens Gerschman, Leandro Katz and many others. For am analysis of this phenomenon see, Jacqueline Bamitz, Latin American Artists in New York, (Austin: Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, 1987); and also, Carla Stellweg, "Magnet, New York," in The Latin American Spirit,: Latin American Artists in the United States, 1920-1970 (New York: Harry N. Abrams and The Bronx Museum for the Arts, 1988)284-311.

18 The New York Graphic Workshop was founded with the support of amateur artist Dr. Firestone. It functioned during the second half of the sixties as an experimental print workshop and school and continued to produce collective work until 1970, when it contributed a mail art piece to the Museum of Modem Art Information Show. Camnitzer, Interview.

19 Camnitzer studied printmaking and sculpture at the very conservative School of Fine Arts of the University of Uruguay. He later spent a year at the Munich Academy perfecting his technique in these two media.

20 Art In Editions: New Approaches, text by Luis Camnitzer, sponsored by Pratt Graphic Center for Contemporary Printmaking, New York: New York University, 1968.

21 Camnitzer, Interview.

22 Camnitzer, Chronology, 3

23 Camnitzer, chronology, 1.

24 Camnitzer, "Chronology," 1986.

25 New York Graphic Workshop, n.p.

26 Camnitzer, Chronology, 4

27 Camnitzer, Interview.

28 Joseph Beuys, cited in Eleanor Heartney, "The New Social Sculpture," Sculpture, July/August 1989, 26.

29 This work was preceded by another work of 1968 which consisted of self adhesive labels with the word "Leftovers" printed unto them which Camnitzer pasted to walls. both works bear the same tide.

30 Camnitzer, Interview.

31 One significant exception is a two-sided drawing of 1976 titled Science, which alluded to the theme of repression taking over in Latin America.

32 Cited in Suzi Gablik, Magritte, 3rd printing (New York: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1972), 11.

33 Camnitzer, Interview.

34 New York Graphic Workshop, n.p.

35 New York Graphic Workshop, n.p.

36 Camnitzer, Interview.

For details about these two series see Suzi Gablik, Magritte, 126-144.

38 New York Graphic Workshop. Luis Camnitzer, Jose Guillermo Castillo, Liliana Porter, Instituto Nacional de Cultura y Bellas Artes, Museo de Bellas Artes de Caracas, Enero de 1969, texts by Luis Camnitzer, n.p.

39 Gablik, 102-04.

40 Michel Foucault, The Order of Things, cited in Martin Jay "In the Empire or the Gaze: Foucault and the Denigration of Vision in Twentieth Century French Thought." In David Couzens Hoy, ed. Foucault. A Critical Reader (New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986) 185, 201.

41 Cammitzer, Chronology, 8.

42 Charles Merewether, "Writing on the Wall," 1990, forthcoming publication in Arte en Colombia.

43 Camnitzer's technique consisted of a translation of the industrial process of four-color separation into a low-cost, 'household' technique accessible to artist with limited equipment and resources. Camnitzer, Interview.

44 Selby Hickey, Camnitzer's wife since 1979, has been instrumental throughout this period in helping to adjust the texts that accompany the images of these series as well as suggesting ideas for possible text and image combinations. Camnitzer, Interview.

45 Camnitzer, Interview.

46 Camnitzer, Interview.

47 Merewether, 56.

48 Camnitzer, Interview.

49 Merewether, 40.

50 Merewether, 40.

51 Alicia Haber has identified the following sources for some of the citations in this installation: the pipe is a reference to Magritte's Ceci n' est pas une pipe; the piece of sky on a board is also a reference to Magritte (La Cow d'Amour, Le Beau Monde, La Grande Famille) while the broken mirror recalls Duchamp's La grande Vem. See Alicia Haber, "Luis Camnitzer: Analisis, lirismo, compromiso," Plastica (San Juan, Puerto Rico), no. 15, 1989, 38-39. We can also point to a piece by Broodthaers, La Malediction de Magritte (1966) which embodies many of the concepts of reality, vs. illusion. citation of artists' sources, etc. embodied in the Venice installation.

52 Eduardo Galeano, "Introduction," Luis Camnitzer, XLIII Venice Biennale, 1988, n.p.

53 The San Patricios was a brigade of Irish soldiers active during the Mexican American War who, having fought originally on the American side, deserted the Americans and went to fight on the side of the Mexicans. As a result they were put to trial, tortured and killed.

54 I refer again here to Frederic Jameson's discussion of post-modernism in "Post-Modernism and Consumer Society,' 125.


"Wonderbread and Spanglish Art" by Luis Camnitzer

1 The New York Times of October 25, 1987, under the title "Furor in Calcutta over Dress Code" published a news item which begins: "A prominent musician has been ousted from an exclusive club in Calcutta after he insisted on wearing Indian-style clothes and refused to follow the club's dress code which favors casual or formal Western attire."

2 L.S. Stavrianos, Global Rift: The Third World Comes of Age, William Morrow and Co., New York, 1981.

3 Miguel Barnet, "Identidad Cultural y Liberacion Nacional," paper presented at the First Meeting of Intellectuals for the Sovereignty of our America Havana 1981.

4 Geeta Kapur points out that: "In societies like India, modernization in the capitalist style has produced the commercialization of not only the traditions themselves, but also of the traditional forms and artifacts, to serve both the state and the market." (Tradition and Contemporaneity in the Fine Arts of the Third World, paper presented at the 111 Biennial of Havana November 1989)

5 Brazilian poet Oswald de Andrade, for example, published an "Anthropophagite Manifesto" in 1928, in which he wrote of the "absorption of the sacred enemy".

6 Le Monde, Paris, January 27,1987, quoted by Alvaro Medina in "Las nuevas y viejas estrategias", Arte en Colombia #34. Schneckenburger was referring to a lack of the funds needed to reasonably present the context and the particular conditions he describes.

The concern has been present previously in artists such as Torres-Garcia (Uruguay), Eduardo Ramirez Villami zar (Colombia) and many others. Paternosto recently published a book on the subject: Piedra Abstracta, Fondo de Cultura Economica, Buenos Aires—Mexico, 1989.

8 Even when generous grants are given, they only provide a minuscule fraction of the cost of the total education of a qualified individual. While needed and welcomed by the recipient for his or her individual development, a grant acts primarily as a talent tagging device. It is interesting to note that a prestigious institution like the John Simon Guggenhaim Foundation has lately resorted to asking its fellows for donations id order the insure the preservation of regional programs, using the alumni psychology. The example given for a threat of possible cuts is the Latin American program. The Guggenheim also has accepted $100,000 from the Lampadia Foundation in Buenos Aires id support of Fellows from Argentina and Chile (to be chosen by the Guggenheim). Money is exported from the periphery to the U.S. and then imported to the periphery under the aegis of a U.S. foundation. The U.S. Foundation appears as having an increased philanthropical scope, while the Argentinean money presumably reenters with its prestige enhanced. But with this move the talent-tagging process—usually coveted because of its inroad regional competition—becomes debased to become am event more provincial in character and with "second class" fellows.

9 remembering the feelings I had in 1965-66 about myself and my work, in 1977 I wrote: "[...]I thought that the verbal description of a visual situation could elicit the activity of the spectator in a better way than the visual situation itself. A text also had the advantage of being cheaper and less totalitarian. Again I thought m Uruguayan terms, about an aesthetic of poverty which could affect the contexts in which people give. At the same time that I was doing this, hundreds of artists all over the world, except (to my knowledge) in Uruguay, were working on the same basis. That, and the fact that in Uruguay nobody identified with my work, gave food for thought... There was the megalomaniac and optimist version: I was working for Uruguay, in advance of my own time; someday I will achieve the changes in the perceptual mechanisms of my country; the fact that I live outside the country does not matter. There was the negative and depressing version: I had assimilated the aesthetics that surround me without even being aware of it; I am working in the USA and for that environment, even if I don't like it and I don't identify with it; Uruguay is lost for me. Working with words made the problem more acute. In what language do I write, m Spanish or English? Am I working for the people I want to work for but who cannot see my work: Am I working for the people I do not care to work for, but who do see my work? Should I make two versions of my work? And while I write this I realize that, without giving a thought, I wrote everything m Spanish and that, maybe, I will have to translate the whole thing into English.[...] I perceived that I remained floating between two cultures: one that is being alien although I don't want it to; the other that is alien because I want it to be and because I do not conceive of it not being alien; I am an alien resident.[...] My country does not exist anymore, except in my memory. I am a citizen of my memory, which does not have laws passports or inhabitants; it only has distortions.

10 1 used these ideas for the first time in an essay, "Latin American Art in the U.S.: Latin or American?" (which served as a starter for this one) for "Convergences/Convergencias," an exhibit at The Lehman College Art Gallery, NYC, in 1988.

11 In "Homogenizing Hispanic Art in Houston— 'The New Art Examiner, September, 1987, Shifra Goldman cites Rodolfo Acuna who attributes to the Nixon Administration the initiation of the practice of "consolidating Latin Americans into a national minority celled 'Hispanic' m order to manage them more easily" (Rodolfo Acuna, "A Community Under Siege," Chicano Research Center, UCLA, 1984.)

12 For a detailed discussion of the topic see: Martha E. Gimenez, "Latino/Hispanic'—Who needs a Name?, The Case Against a Standardized Terminology," International Journal of Health Services, Volume 19, Number 3, pp. 557-571, 1989.

13 I is not just a distance in the realms of art. Pat Robertson's call for increasing procreation m the U.S. (during his 1988 presidential campaign) is implicitly a call to anglo-middle class procreation and explicitly to ensure the survival of U.S. mainstream values.




Articles and Essays

NAAO Bulletin, Washington DC.
Letter exchange with Julianne Ross Davis, General Counsel for the N.E.A., December issue,
NAAO Bulletin, Washington DC.
Letter to Lehman College Art Gallery recom
mending refusal of approved $15,000 N.E.A.
grant for Camnitzer retrospective exhibit. October 1990, p. 4.
Art Spiral, New York.
"Cultural Policy in Latin America," Fall issue, pp. 4-5.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay.
"La idea Ferrari," October 23, p. 23.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.
XLIV Bienal de Venecia. Cursi por excelencia," #45, October, pp. 79-84.
Polarities Inc., Brookline, Ma.
The nearest edge of the world, art in Cuba now., catalogue for an exhibit circulated by the New England Foundation for the Arts. "The Eclecti
cism of Survival: Cuban Art Today," pp. 18-23.
New Art Examiner, Chicago. "An art of secular mysticism. The legacy of
Juan Francisco Elso Padilla," November pp. 28-30.
Museo Carrillo Gil, Mexico City, Mexico.
Text for the catalogue for the retrospective of Elso Padilla.
S.UN.Y. Old Westbury, New York.
Introduction for "Telarte, Fabrics by Cuban
Artists," catalogue for the exhibit with same title, April.
Pori Museum of Fine Arts, Pori, Finland.
Catalogue for "Young Cuban Art," reprint of the essay on Elso Padilla, pp. 61-64.
Third Text, London, England.
"The Third Biennial of Havana," #10, pp.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.
"Picasso y Braque," #44, pp. 72-75.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Un laboratorio vivo," report on the III Biennial
of Havana. #43, February, pp. 61-68.
Rethinking Marxism, Newton Center, Massachusets.
Reproductions of the one-man exhibit at the
1988 Biennial of Venice. Vol.2, #4, pp. 107117.

Jimmie Durham, Exit Art, New York. Catalogue for a retrospective of Jimmie Durham, "Jimmie Durham: Dancing Serious Dances," pp. 6-10.
Third Text, London, England. "Ana Mendieta," #7, pp.47-52.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "La linea de la vida," p. 27, June 30.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Artschwager y los muebles muertos," pp. 8889, #40, May.
Cuba Update, New York. "Juan Francisco Elso Padilla (1956-1988): An Appreciation," pp. 20-21, Winter 1989.
Plástica, San Juan, Puerto Rico. "La 43a. Bienal de Venecia," pp. 21-25, #18, March.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "La Computadora y el Arte," pp. 52-55, #39, February.

Opción, Editorial Arte y Letras, Havana, Cuba. "Cinco Textos," 1987/2, pp. 238-269.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "La Computadora y el Arte," November 11.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "La XLIII Bienal de Venecia en sus 93 anos" pp. 53-57, #38, December,
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Ana Mendieta," pp. 44-49, #38, December.
New Art Examiner, Chicago. "A Spectacle of Nationalism (The 43rd Biennial of Venice)," pp. 32-34, November.
New Art Examiner, Chicago. "Speakeasy," pp. 13-14, summer issue.
Revista de Casa de las Americas, Havana, Cuba. "¿Arte Inmaculado?," pp.20-27, # 168.
Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, N.Y. Introductory essay for the catalogue of the exhibit "Signs of Transition: '80's Art from Cuba."
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Impacto y Acostumbramiento," Stella and Dibbets in New York, January 15, p. 23.
Museo de Artes Plasticás, Montevideo, Uruguay. Catalogue for the one-person exhibition in the Biennial of Venice, representing Uruguay; June, 34 pp.

Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Acceso a la Corriente Principal," December, #35, pp. 88-93.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Los Tamsformadores," September, #34, pp. 53-55.
New Art Examiner, Chicago. "Access to the Mainstream," cover story, July, pp. 20-23.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Para leer a Paul Klee," May 8, p. 28.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "James Rosenquist en el Museo Whitney," May, #33, pp. 47-49.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "La Segunda Bienal de La Habana," cover story, May, #33, pp. 79-85
Art in America, New York "Report from Havana," a conversation on the II Bienal of Havana including Rudolf Baranik, Eva Cockroft, Douglas Crimp and Lucy Lippard, March, pp. 21-29. Gramma, international edition, Havana, Cuba. "Havana: a Magnet our Art needs," a report on the II Biennial, February 15, p. 7.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Schwitters en el MOMA," February, #32, pp. 50-53.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Exposicion de Arte Povera: El Nudo," February, #32, pp.53-56.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Un Imán que Nuestro Arte Necesita," report on the II Biennial of Havana, January 23.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Obsesion y Misticismo en el Museo Guggenheim," article on the work by Richard Long, February 6.

La Jaula Invisible, by Orlando Suárez Suárez Editorial Ciencias Sociales, Havana, Cuba. "Anexo VI, Testimonio de Luis Camnitzer," reprint from catalogue of Casa de las Américas, 1983, pp. 184-195.
Arte en Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. "Arte e Ideologia II," October, #31, pp. 42-47.
Arte Plural, Caracas, Venezuela. "Salvatore Ferragamo," October issue.
Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, N.Y. introduction to the catalogue of the "Latin American Biennial of Prints," pp. 4-6.
Arte en Colombia,
Botogá, Colombia. "Obituario pare Ana Mendieta," February, #29, p.75.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia. "Diseno Norteamericano del siglo XX," May, #30, pp. 53-57.
Plasticá, San Juan, Puerto Rico. "Proyecciones de la ensenanza del arte," March, #14, pp. 29-30.
New Art Examiner, Chicago. "Art Education in Latin America," September, Vol. 14, #1, pp. 30-33.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Schwitters, personal, independiente, casi perfecto," February 14.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Figari entre rascacielos," May 30.
Brecha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Futurismo en Venecia," September 12.
Museo de Artes Plásticas, Montevideo, Uruguay. Catalogue on occasion of a retrospective exhibition, with text and reproductions of work, August, 34 pp.

Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia. "La Bienal de Venecia," February, #26, pp. 56-58.
Arte en Colombia, Bogota, Colombia. "Arte primitivo en el M.O.M.A.," May, #27, pp. 21-25.
Arte en Colombia, Bogota, Colombia. "Leon Golub," September, #28, pp. 28-32.
Arte en Colombia. Botogá, Colombia. "Arte en el espejo," September, #28, pp. 73-75. S.U.N.Y. College at Old Westbury, N.Y. "New Art from Cuba," Prologue (p. VII) and Epilogue (pp. 47-48) for the catalogue of the exhibit.

The Alternative Museum, N.Y. "From the Uruguayan Torture," catalogue for the exhibit, with introductions by Madeleine Burnside and Robert Browning, January, 16 pp.
Arte en Colombia, Bogota`, Colombia. "Balthus," January N. 24, pp. 18-20.
Arte en Colombia. Bogota, Colombia. ''Willem de Kooning en el Whitney," January, N. 24, pp. 54-57.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia. "Es posible la ensenanza del arte?," May, #25, pp. 58-68.
Arte en Colombia, Bogota, Colombia.
"Argentino redisena el M.O.M.A. de Nueva
York," May, #25, pp. 22-24.
Art in America, New York.
"Report from Havana, the First Biennial of Latin American Art," December, pp. 4149.

Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Visiones del norte," February, #20, pp. 54-56.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Ideologia y estetica: arte nazi de los anos treinta," May, N.21, pp. 40-53.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Yves Klein," September, N.22, pp. 61-63.
Casa de las Americas, Havana, Cuba.
Catalogue for a retrospective exhibition, April, 24 pp.

Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Roy Lichtenstein en el Whitney Museum," March, #18, pp. 57-60.

Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Robert Smithson estuvo aqui," October, #19, pp. 4447.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"La Bienal de Venecia de 1980," March, #14, pp. 37-39.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Picasso en el M.O.M.A.," March, #14, pp.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Joseph Cornell en el M.O.M.A.," June, #15, pp. 66-68.

Museum Wiesbaden, Germany.
Catalogue with text and reproduction of work, February, 24 pp.
Arte en Colombia, Bogota, Colombia.
"Joseph Beuys en el Museo Guggenheim," May, #12, pp. 48-51.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Francis Bacon," October, #13, pp. 72-73.
Gnome Baker Magazine, New York
"Selected Work," Spring, N. VI, pp. 20-35.

Chamber of Commerce Galeria La Oficina, Medellin, Colombia.
Catalogue with text and reproductions of work. January. 18 pp.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia.
"Exhibiciones recientes: algunas consideraciones," April, N. 9, pp. 30-33.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia. "Retrospective de Rothko," September, #10, pp. 66-68.
Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia. "R. B. Kitaj en la Malborough Gallery," December, #11, pp. 32-33.
Journal, Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles "Answers to Five Questions," Issue on Latin American Art, November/December, #25, pp. 43-47.

Arte en Colombia, Botogá, Colombia. "Conceptuales vs. Hiperrealistas," July, #8, pp. 63-66.

Museo de Arte Moderno, Botogá, Colombia.
Catalogue with text and reproductions of work. January. 40 pp.
Point of Contact, New York. Selected Work, July, N. 4, pp. 40-46.

Galeria Colibri, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Catalogue with text and reproduction of work. January. 24 pp.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Tres muestras europeas," October 20.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Arte negro en Nueva York," June 4.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Museos, Calles y Banquetes," January 9.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "El grabado latinoamericano," March 3.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Arte Colonial Contempora'neo," July 3, (partially reprinted in Lucy Lippard: "Six Years," Praeger, N.Y. 1973, pp 168-169).
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Torres Garcia' en Nueva York," December 24.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "El Living Theatre y el Grupo Tse," January 10.
Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela.
"Texto," essay for the catalogue of the New York Graphic Workshop, January, pp. 1-10.

Pratt Graphics Center/New York University, New York. "Art in Editions: New Approaches," essay for the catalogue of the exhibit under the same title in the Loeb Student Center, January pp. 1-7. (Reprinted in the "Prints/Multiples" catalogue of the Henry Gallery, University of Washington at Seattle, November, 1969.)
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Teatro social hippy," January 19.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Peter Weiss investiga el nazismo," February 3.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "El resto es auto-bombo," May 5.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Interview con José Luis Cuevas," September 8.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Móbiles en New York," February 4.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Tres Argentinos en Nueva York," March 25.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Interview con Siqueiros," June 24.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Arte Latinoamericano en Nueva York," October 13.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Exposiciones en Nueva York," November 4.
Artist's Proof, A Journal of Printmaking, New York.
"A Redefinition of the Print," Vol. Vl, N. 9-10, pp.l03-105.

Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "¿El Pop listo pare el entierro?," January 22.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Miguel Angel ha muerto, viva la escultura," February 1965.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Mas Pop: Entre el tedio y la nada," April 23.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Y ahora, OP," May 7.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Interview con Claes Oldenburg," May 19.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "La simpatia de los objetos," August 13.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay.
"El monstruo persigue a Sylvia," August 27.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Larry Rivers, un historiador pictorico," October 22.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Interview con Ernst Trova," December 17.


Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "Interview con Salvador Dali," June 8.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "La Magia de una ciudad Pop," July 10.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "El hombre de la manzana y los otros," August 28.
Marcha, Montevideo, Uruguay. "De repente un Happening," December 18.