Footnote and bibliography style for History papers
Based on Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).
Note: This is the most commonly used style for footnotes and bibliography in history articles and books, but not the only one. You should always ask your professors if they have any specific guidelines for their assignments.
Please be aware that in order to be ADA compliant, Lehman's websites are not allowed to display any text in italics. As a result the styles presented below are NOT accurate. Please refer to this pdf file for correct styles!
Type of Entry
|Note Form (first note)||Bibliographic Form|
|Book—single author||1. Toni Morrison,Playing in the Dark:Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press , 1992), 37.||Morrison, Toni.Playing in the Dark:Whiteness and the Literary Imagination.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Press, 1992.|
|Book—multiple authors||2. Francis A.J. Ianni and Elizabeth Reuss-Ianni, A Family Business:Kinship and Social Control in Organized Crime (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972), 106.||Ianni, Francis A., and Elizabeth Reuss-Ianni.A Family Business: Kinship and SocialControl in Organized Crime.New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972.|
|Encyclopedia article||3.Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “crime.||No bibliographic entry is needed.|
|Newspaper article||4. “Powell Sees Bias in Policy Arrest,”New York Times, 4 January 1960, sec. A, p. 9.||No bibliographic entry is needed.|
|Magazine article||5. Tom Morganthau, “The Drug Gangs,”Newsweek, 28 March 1998, 24.||Morganthau, Tom. “The Drug Gangs.”Newsweek, 28 March 1998, 20-27.|
|Journal article*||6. G. Robert Blakes, “State Conducted Lotteries: History, Problems, and Promises,” Journal of Social Issues35, no. 3 (1979): 65.||Blakes, G. Robert. State Conducted Lotteries: History, Problems, and Promises.”Journal of Social Issues35, no. 3 (1979): 62-86.|
|Article in an edited collection||Ralf Dahrendorf, “On the Origins of Inequality among Men,” inSocialInequality: Selected Readings, ed. Andre Béteille(Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969), 39.||Dahrendorf, Ralf. “On the Origins of Inequality among Men.” InSocialInequality: Selected Readings, edited by Andre Béteille, 16-44. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.|
|Internet site||7. Cheryl Corley, “Detroit Struggles to Overcome Urban Blight”; available from http:// www.npr.org/templates/story/ story. php?storyId= 4254620; accessed 25 April 2009.||Corley, Cheryl. “Detroit Struggles to Overcome Urban Blight.” Available from http:// www.npr.org/templates/story/ story.php?storyId=4254620; accessed 25 April 2009.|
Ebook formatted for reader(Kindle, Nook, iPad, etc.)**
8. John W. Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (New York: Norton, 2000), Kindle edition, chapter 10, paragraph 4.Note: if the ebook tells you the page number of the printed book, use the page number. If not, use chapter name and paragraph number. Do not cite Kindle “location numbers.”
Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: Norton, 2000. Google Play edition.
Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: Norton, 2000. Kindle edition.
William Mission Ellis, History of the London Missionary Society (London: John Snow, 1844), accessed May 2, 2013.
Ellis, William Mission. History of the London Missionary Society. London: John Snow, 1844. Accessed May 2, 2013.
* Use these formats even if you access a journal article from an online database. It should be possible to determine the volume, number, year, and full pagination from the database
**Your professor may prefer that you not use these formats. Ask first.
Format for Additional Note References
After the first footnote reference to a work, subsequent references should be shortened. Use short titles or the Latin wordibid.(short foribidem,"in the same place") depending on the location of the note:
Type of Entry
|Note Form (first note)|
|After the first full reference when there are no intervening references:||2. Ibid|
|After the first full reference when there are no intervening references and the reference is to a different page in the same work:||3. Ibid, 68.|
|When there are intervening references between the first full reference and this one (book and article titles may be shortened):||
12. Morrison,Playing in the Dark, 117.13. Blake, “State Conducted Lotteries,” 66.